to relatively small changes in streamflow. Groundwater recharge the inflow to a ground water reservoir. Flowing artesian well a special case of an artesian well where a water well drilled into a confined aquifer has enough hydraulic pressure for the water to rise to a height above ground surface and to flow at the surface without pumping. Upflow an upward flow. Downgradient the direction that groundwater flows; similar to downstream for surface water. Oxbow lake a U-shaped water body formed when a meander bend is cut off from the mainstem of a river or stream to create a lake. Contact recreation activities involving a significant risk of ingestion of water, such as wading by children, swimming, water skiing, diving and surfing. Salinity amount of dissolved salts in a given volume of water. In many places, abandoned wells must be filled with cement or concrete grout to prevent pollution of ground water bodies. Phenolphthalein alkalinity the alkalinity in a water sample measured by the amount of standard acid needed to lower the pH to a level.3 as indicated by the change of color of the phenolphthalein from pink to clear.
Embeddedness a measure of the degree that gravel and larger substrates are surrounded by fine particles (silt and sand). Physical weathering breaking down of parent rock into bits and pieces by exposure to temperature and changes and the physical action of moving ice and water, growing roots, and human activities such as farming and construction. It may be called seawater intrusion if it comes from the ocean. Tributary a stream that contributes its water to another stream or body of water.
Water recycling the treatment of wastewater making it suitable for reuse. Moisture content the amount of water lost from soil upon drying to a constant weight, expressed as the weight per unit of dry soil or as the volume of water per unit bulk volume of the soil. Scupper hole allowing water to drain from ship's deck.
Also acts in an oversight role to state environmental agencies that carry out federal laws. Concentration amount of a chemical or pollutant in a particular volume or weight of air, water, soil, or other medium. Aquatic life use a beneficial use designation in which the water body provides suitable habitat for survival and reproduction of desirable fish, shellfish, and other aquatic organisms. Alternative to Manning's equation. Granular activated carbon pure carbon heated to promote "active" sites which can adsorb pollutants. Armoring the formation of an erosion-resistant layer of relatively large particles on a streambed or bank resulting from removal of finer particles by erosion.
Indicator tests tests for a specific contaminant, group of contaminants, or constituent which signals the presence of something else (ex., coliforms indicate the presence of pathogenic bacteria). Aspergillum vessel for sprinkling holy water. Vadose zone the zone between land surface and the water table where the moisture content is less than saturation (except in the capillary fringe) and pressure is less than atmospheric. Driller's well log a log kept at the time of drilling showing the depth, thickness, character of the different strata penetrated, location of water-bearing strata, depth, size, and character of casing installed. Method blank laboratory grade water taken through the entire analytical procedure to determine if samples are being accidentally contaminated by chemicals in the lab methyl tertiary butyl ether (mtbe) an additive originally put in gasoline to reduce air pollution, but later found to.
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